Mechanisms of nongenomic actions of thyroid hormone.

Publication Type:

Journal Article

Source:

Front Neuroendocrinol, Volume 29, Issue 2, p.211-8 (2008)

Keywords:

Actins, Animals, Cell Line, Tumor, Cell Proliferation, Genome, Humans, Integrin alphaVbeta3, Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases, Neovascularization, Pathologic, Protein Transport, Receptors, Cell Surface, Receptors, Thyroid Hormone, Thyroid hormones, Thyroxine, Triiodothyronine, Triiodothyronine, Reverse

Abstract:

The nongenomic actions of thyroid hormone require a plasma membrane receptor or nuclear receptors located in cytoplasm. The plasma membrane receptor is located on integrin alphaVbeta3 at the Arg-Gly-Asp recognition site important to the binding by the integrin of extracellular matrix proteins. l-Thyroxine (T(4)) is bound with greater affinity at this site than 3,5,3'-triiodo-l-thyronine (T(3)). Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK; ERK1/2) transduces the hormone signal into complex cellular/nuclear events including angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation. Acting at the integrin receptor and without cell entry, thyroid hormone can foster ERK1/2-dependent serine phosphorylation of nuclear thyroid hormone receptor-beta1 (TRbeta1) and de-repress the latter. The integrin receptor also mediates actions of the hormone on intracellular protein trafficking and on plasma membrane ion pumps, including the sodium/protein antiporter. Tetraiodothyroacetic (tetrac) is a T(4) analog that inhibits binding of iodothyronines to the integrin receptor and is a probe for the participation of this receptor in cellular actions of the hormone. Tetrac blocks thyroid hormone effects on angiogenesis and cancer cell proliferation. Acting on a truncated form of nuclear TRalpha1 (TRDeltaalpha1) located in cytoplasm, T(4) and 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (reverse T(3)), but not T(3), cause conversion of soluble actin to fibrous (F) actin that is important to cell motility, e.g., in cells such as glia and neurons. Normal development of the central nervous system requires such motility. TRbeta1 in cytoplasm mediates action of T(3) on expression of certain genes via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-K) and the protein kinase B/Akt pathway. PI 3-K and, possibly, cytoplasmic TRbeta1 are involved in stimulation by T(3) of insertion of Na,K-ATPase in the plasma membrane and of increase in activity of this pump. Because ambient thyroid hormone levels are constant in the euthyroid intact organism, these nongenomic hormone actions are likely to be contributors to basal rate-setting of transcription of certain genes and of complex cellular events such as angiogenesis and cancer cell proliferation.
National Library of Medicine (brackets, no "et al."): Davis PJ, Leonard JL, Davis FB. Mechanisms of nongenomic actions of thyroid hormone. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2008;29(2):211-8.
National Library of Medicine (grant proposals with PMCID/PMID): Davis PJ, Leonard JL, Davis FB. Mechanisms of nongenomic actions of thyroid hormone. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2008;29(2):211-8.
National Library of Medicine (NLM) - Grant with PMID: Davis PJ, Leonard JL, Davis FB. Mechanisms of nongenomic actions of thyroid hormone. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2008;29(2):211-8.
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